Showing posts with label bash. Show all posts
Showing posts with label bash. Show all posts

Sunday 8 February 2015

Uppercase and Lowercase Conversion - Bash Style

After a long long time, I am back with this short post to convert case of strings in bash. While you might have been using tr (Like I did for a while) for this purpose, bash 4 has a built-in way for the case conversion. Withour further ado, here is a session
$ x="samar"

$ echo "${x^}"

$ echo "${x^^}"

$ y="${x^^}"

$ echo $y

$ echo "${y,}"

$ echo "${y,,}"

I hope this helps ;)


Saturday 9 November 2013

Fix Your Ubuntu

Recently Ubuntu has been known for turning into an advertising company and has been accused of not protecting user's privacy so just came across this site that fixes your ubuntu by applying some patches to turn off some of the invasive features of Ubuntu.


Monday 16 September 2013

Two Ways To Print Lines From File Reversely

Ever tried to print lines in files in the reverse order? You will know two simple methods to print lines from file in the reverse order.

Imagine a file somefile.txt with content something like this:

Method 1:

$ tac somefile.txt

Method 2:

$ sort -r somefile.txt

You can achieve the same effect through other techniques as well but I'll stick to these simple ones :)


Saturday 27 October 2012

Linux Cat Command Examples

Sunday 21 October 2012

Enable Auto Correction Of Path In Bash

While using the cd command, its normal to make mistakes while typing the directory path. You can enable auto-correction while typing directory path by enabling a particular shell option.

Minor spelling mistakes will be corrected automatically if the particular shell option cdspell using the SHell OPTions command invoked with shopt command.

When you enable the cdspell shell option, the errors checked for are missing characters, repeated characters, and transposed characters. Once the error is encountered, the corrected path is printed and directory is changed successfully.

samar@samar-Techgaun:~$ shopt -s cdspell
samar@samar-Techgaun:~$ cd Desktp
samar@samar-Techgaun:~/Desktop$ cd ../Deskotp/
samar@samar-Techgaun:~/Desktop$ cd ../Desktoop

The line shopt -s cdspell enables the auto-correction while using cd command. The session above shows some of the corrections performed once we enabled the cdspell shell option.

If you want to turn on this particular setting, then add the appropriate line using the command below:

samar@samar-Techgaun:~$ echo "shopt -s cdspell" >> ~/.bash_profile

I hope this counts as useful tips to beginner linux guys ;)


Monday 3 September 2012

Preventing Accidental Overwriting Of Files In Bash Shell

How many times has this happened to you? It used to happen once in a while with me. A Linux user learns to use the redirection operators such as '>' and '>>' but accidental overwriting starts to become common in commands you use and shell scripts you write.

The accidental overwriting of files that happens unintentionally is known as clobbering and it commonly happens while using the '>' redirection operator.

samar@Techgaun:~$ mycmd > myfile

In the above example, the mycmd clobbers any existing data in the myfile file if that file exists already. Worse things may happen sometime. Imagine accidentally typing

samar@Techgaun:~$ mycmd > /etc/passwd

instead of possibly using other redirection operators (like >> or <). Thankfully, you could recover /etc/passwd from either /etc/passwd- or /var/backups/passwd.bak if you hadn't rm'd these files.

To prevent such accidental overwriting, we can set the noclobber environment variable. Below is a session of enabling this variable:

samar@Techgaun:~/Desktop/test$ echo "" > myfile
samar@Techgaun:~/Desktop/test$ echo "Overwriting" > myfile
samar@Techgaun:~/Desktop/test$ set -o noclobber
samar@Techgaun:~/Desktop/test$ echo "Retrying to overwrite" > myfile
-bash: myfile: cannot overwrite existing file

As seen above, you have to turn on the noclobber variable using the set -o noclobber command in your shell. However, you might want to intentionally overwrite contents of certain files even when the noclobber is turned on.

samar@Techgaun:~$ mycmd >| myfile

Notice the >| in place of your normal > redirection operator. Using this operator, you can however overwrite the existing files even if the noclobber is turned on.

If you want to turn off the noclobber variable, type the following:

samar@Techgaun:~$ set +o noclobber

You can also permanently turn on the noclobber by the following command:

samar@Techgaun:~$ echo "set -o noclobber" >> ~/.bashrc

Moreover, such accidental overwriting can be prevented by enabling the interactive mode which is available in most of the linux commands. For example, you can write the alias for many commands that are likely to cause accidental overwriting. See some examples of aliases below:

samar@Techgaun:~$ alias rm=rm -i
samar@Techgaun:~$ alias mv=mv -i

You could even keep these aliases in your ~/.bashrc file permanently. Enabling such interactive modes by default in the commands that are more likely to cause accidental overwriting can prevent clobbering in many cases.

I hope this proves useful to you :)